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Dolidze and G. Dzhimshelejshvili It contains 11 additional clusters. German astronomer Hans Haffner - , working at Boyden Observatory in South Africa, published his catalogue of 26 southern open clusters in In , the Americal astronomer Ivan King found several new galactic clusters during examination of photographs made with the Great Metcalf Refractor 16" of Harvard College Observatory. He identified 12 clusters as "certain physical clusters" and another 9 as "suspected clusters". Mel: Melotte Catalogue of Star Clusters. The English amateur astronomer John Franklin-Adams — created an early photographic atlas of the sky, based on plates taken at Johannesburg, South Africa, and Godalming, England.

Philibert Jacques Melotte scanned the Franklin-Adams chart plates for star clusters and published his catalogue of objects in The Melotte catalogue contains both open clusters and globular clusters. As a by-product of a survey of stars of high luminosity in the northern Milky Way, Curt Roslund of the Warner and Swasey Observatory published a list of 7 new clusters, all located in a small region in Cygnus, Sagittarius and Vulpecula.

Czech astronomer Jaroslav Ruprecht was appointed by the International Astronomical Union to gather all available information about OB associations and publish a definitive list. He gathered information from several observatories, classified all known clusters in the Trumpler's system and concluded that objects were very probably real open clusters, while doubting the reality of other objects. Within this catalogue there are new open clusters: the majority being unique objects, not listed before his publication.

Stock subsequently played a key role in establishing mayor observatories in South Amerika.

1860s in science

In the early 's, he was asked by the university of Chicago to test sites in Chile to put up a 1. The result was a three-year trip, and ultimately the world's largest collection of astronomical instruments now being in Chile. Best known for his discovery of Pluto, Clyde Tombaugh identified 5 new open clusters when examining the photographic plates of the 13" Lawrence Lowell astrograph. Later, Tombaugh 3 later prooved to be a re-observation of IC He is best known for his observation that the brightness of distant open clusters was lower than expected, caused by absorption of light through interstellar dust.

In that same year, , he published an analysis of open star clusters in which he included 37 clusters that were not yet formally listed at that time. Abell: Abell Catalog of Planetary Nebulae. This is a list of 86 planetary nebula identified by George Abell on the plates of the first Palomar Observatory Sky Survey. Abell 11, 32, 76, 85 were later not confirmed as planetary nebula.

Notable entries include the Medusa Nebula Abell 21 and Abell Included in this catalogue are those objects classified as PNe and given in published lists. Selection criteria also allow for objects listed as symbiotic stars occurring simultaneously wth a planetary nebula or proto-planetary nebula in the catalogue. Boris Aleksandrovich Vorontsov-Velyaminov was a Russian astrophysicist who compiled a catalogue of what are now known as Vorontsov-Velyaminov galaxies, as well as a larger and more general catalogue of galaxies the Morphological Catalogue of Galaxies. He also studied and classified planetary nebulae.

List of four planetary nebula from Alexander Nikolayevich Vyssotsky, found accidentally on plates of the inch prismatic Cooke camera. Vyssotsky is otherwise best known for a catalog with five lists of stars entitled "Dwarf M Stars Found Spectrophotometrically". Catalogue of It was a successor to the Burnham Double Star Catalogue. BU: Burnham's double star catalogue. New discoveries in the Catalogue of double stars compiled by Sherburne Wesley Burnham, from onward. He started observations as an amateur astronomer using a 6-inch Alvan Clark refractor.

A list of wide 'pairs' of stars, compiled by Scottish astronomer James Dunlop from Australia, using less than optimal equipment. The selection is rather broad, and only of stars are real pairs, with three being duplicates of multiple stars, and 22 remaining uncertain with their identification. A British amateur astronomer who assisted Rev.

He discovered many nebulas, variable stars, and more than double stars, including Nova Lacerta in Edwin Hubble was the first to provisionally identify nebulous objects in M31 as globular clusters, using the " Mount Wilson telescope bibcode ApJ As of , globular clusters have been confirmed, but many more candidates are listed. Hodge published in It indicates the location of globular clusters on plates of the 4m Kitt Peak telescope, preceded by the letter 'G'.

The initial list included just 13 clusters with Pal 14 and Pal 15 added later. AND : Search for faint companions to M Arp : Arp Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies. In , Vorontsov and Velyaminov catalogued peculiar galaxies based on the first Palomar Sky Survey. Halton Arp had the opportuniy to turn the inch individually on the most interesting objects. In he compiled this atlas of objects with the aim to present a number of examples of various kinds of peculiar galaxies. The atlas displays them in groupings that appear roughly similar, thereby furnishing also a rough, initial classification.

Arp's hope was to clarify the workings of galaxies themselves, to reveal physical processes and how they operate in galaxies, and ultimately to furnish a better understanding of the workings of the universe as a whole. This catalogue was compiled by the swiss astronomer Fritz Zwicky and his team, published in 6 volumes between and The full catalogue contains The purpose was to cover all galaxies brighter than These covered the part of the sky not researched by the Palomar Schmidt telescope.

The numbering first indicates the photographic plate number, then the object number on that plate. It contained detailed data on In , the PGC was extended to include The PGC is a primary resource for current data on galaxies, including galaxy designations from 50 catalogues. A survey of It was designed to be essentially complete to the limiting diameter 1'. AGC: Abell Catalog of rich clusters of galaxies. This catalogue is the best known work of George O. The original catalogue of listed rich clusters of at galaxies, found during the first Palomar Observatory Sky Survey on plates taken with the 48" Schmidt telescope.

The catalog was subsequently extended to include clusters at the southern hemisphere, collected from a survey of UK 1. Paul Hickson published data on galaxies in compact groups of galaxies that were identified by a systematic search of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey red prints. Each group contains four or more galaxies, has an estimated mean surface brightness brighter than The full atlas of compact groups can be found in Bibcode ApL Other original references are:. R: Rose catalogue of southern clusters of galaxies. In , J. Rose from Yale University Observatory published a catalogue of probable rich clusters of galaxies in selected areas around the south galactic pole?

The clusters were found on the blue plates of the Yale-Colombia proper motion programme, and was part of a programme to locate southern peculiar and interacting galaxies and compact groups of galaxies in addition to rich clusters of galaxies. Dunlop : A Catalogue of nebulae and clusters of stars in the southern hemisphere, observed at Paramatta in New South Wales.

Between april 27 and november 24, , Scottish astronomer James Dunlop discovered nebulae and star clusters, while simultaneously cataloguing double stars. He received the gold medal of the astronomical society of london and was appointed government astronomer. Some years later however, John Herschell was able to only find 'one third' of the objects listed.

Positions proved to be unreliable, descriptions to be inaccurate, and many nebulous objects were probably due to the small self-made telescope he used. It was later found that of the objects do actually exist, so Dunlop really is the discover of many of the famous southern open star clusters, globular clusters, bright nebulae and planetary nebulae. Gum : A study of diffuse southern H-alpha nebulae. Catalog of 84 emission nebulae published by the Australian astronomer Colin Stanley Gum of the Mount Stromlo Observatory using wide field photography. Similar catalogs include the Sharpless catalog and the RCW catalog, and many of the Gum objects are repeated in these other catalogs.

The Gum Nebula is named for Gum, who discovered it as Gum Amateur astronomer Alexandre Renou has specialised in the discovery of non-previously catalogued asterisms. De catalogus bevat momenteel ruim 60 asterismen. French Astronomer Agop Terzan discovered 11 globular clusters in the infrared. They are all heavily obscured and situated near the Galactic Center. The original Terzan 11 was a rediscovery of Terzan 5; newer lists therefore renumber the original Terzan 12 as Terzan Terzan 7 and 8 are probably members of the Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy.

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The Life of John Louis Emil Dreyer

Produced using the Cambridge Interferometer by members of the Radio Astronomy Group of the University of Cambridge and originally published in It lists celestial radio sources detected originally at MHz. In a revision was made using observations at MHz, known as "3CR". A further revision "3CRR" was made in Amateur astronomers can observe the visual counterpart of these sources, like the quasar 3C or the starburst galaxy M Skip to content.

Dismiss Document your code Every project on GitHub comes with a version-controlled wiki to give your documentation the high level of care it deserves. Sign up for free See pricing for teams and enterprises.

Deep sky Catalogues Jump to bottom. Deep sky Catalogues Deep sky objects are identified by their index number in one or more astronomical catalogues. More info: Astronomical League: Herschel HII: the Herschel II program This is an observing program created by the Astronomical League in , and is considered to be the next level observing project after the Herschel program. Bibcode : MeLu2. Bibcode : ApJS Bibcode : PASP Bibcode : IzKry.. Bibcode : AJ Bibcode : Barn.. Bibcode : SvA Because Messier was only interested in finding comets, he created a list of non-comet objects that frustrated his hunt for them.

This catalogue of objects is one of the most famous lists of astronomical objects, and many Messier objects are still referenced by their Messier number. There are several astronomical catalogues referred to as Nebulae and Star Clusters. At the core of the galaxy is a supermassive black hole that heats the intracluster medium through the action of friction from infalling gases and dust.

The gamma ray bursts from the galaxy extend out to several million light years of the cluster. As with other similar elliptical galaxies, only a fraction of the mass of NGC is in the form of stars. They have a flattened, unequal distribution that bulges within its edge.

Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars | Revolvy

Between the stars is a dense interstellar medium full of heavy elements emitted by evolved stars. The diffuse stellar halo extends out to one million light years in diameter. Orbiting the galaxy is a very large population of globular clusters. This is a list of lists, grouped by type of astronomical object. Solar System List of Solar System objects List of gravitationally rounded objects of the Solar System List of Solar System objects most distant from the Sun in List of Solar System objects by size Lists of geological features of the Solar System List of natural satellites moons Lists of small Solar System bodies Lists of comets List of meteor showers Minor planets List of minor planets List of exceptional asteroids List of minor planet moons List of trans-Neptunian objects List of unnumbered minor planets List of dwarf planets List of possible dwarf planets Exo-planets and brown dwarfs Lists of planets Lists of exoplanets List of largest exoplanets List of brown dwarfs Stars Lists of stars List of nearest stars List of brightest stars List of hottest stars List of nearest bright stars List of most luminous stars List of most massive stars List of largest stars List of smallest stars List of olde.

The "Pillars of Creation" from the Eagle Nebula. Evidence from the Spitzer Telescope suggests that the pillars may already have been destroyed by a supernova explosion, but the light showing us the destruction will not reach the Earth for another millennium. Originally, the term was used to describe any diffuse astronomical object, including galaxies beyond the Milky Way.

The Andromeda Galaxy, for instance, was once referred to as the Andromeda Nebula and spiral galaxies in general as "spiral nebulae" before the true nature of galaxies was confirmed in the early 20th century by Vesto Slipher, Edwin Hubble and others. Most nebulae are of vast size; some are hundreds of light-years in diameter.

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A nebula that is barely visible to the human eye from Earth would appear larger, but no brighter, from close by. An astronomical catalogue is a list or tabulation of astronomical objects, typically grouped together because they share a common type, morphology, origin, means of detection, or method of discovery. Astronomical catalogs are usually the result of an astronomical survey of some kind. Born in the Electorate of Hanover, Herschel followed his father into the Military Band of Hanover, before migrating to Great Britain in at the age of nineteen.

Herschel constructed his first large telescope in , after which he spent nine years carrying out sky surveys to investigate double stars. Herschel published catalogues of nebulae in 2, objects and in 5, objects. The resolving power of the Herschel telescopes revealed that many objects called nebulae in the Messier catalogue were actually clusters of stars. On 13 March while making observations he made note of a new object in the constellation of Gemini. This would, after several weeks of verification and consultation with other astronomers, be confirmed to be a new planet, eventually.

Augustine, Florida, United States c. Mullaney suggested that William Herschel's original catalogue of 2, objects would be an excellent basis for deep sky object selection for amateur astronomers looking for a challenge after completing the Messier Catalogue. The catalogue forms the basis of the Astronomical League's Herschel club. In , another subset of Herschel objects was selected by the R. Speculum mirrors tarnished rapidly; with two mirrors, one could be used in the telescope while the other was.

Messier 73 M73, also known as NGC is an asterism of four stars in the constellation of Aquarius. An asterism is composed of physically unconnected stars that appear close to each other in the sky as seen from Earth. History M73 was discovered by Charles Messier on October 4, , who originally described the object as a cluster of four stars with some nebulosity. Subsequent observations by John Herschel, however, failed to reveal any nebulosity.

Deep sky Catalogues

Moreover, Herschel noted that the designation of M73 as a cluster was questionable. M73 was once treated as a potential sparsely populated open cluster, which consists of stars that are physically associated in space as well as on the sky. The question of whether the stars were an asterism or an open cluster generated a small, interesting de.

Sh alternatively designated S or Sharpless is an HII region and bright nebulae that includes a reflection nebula located in the constellation Orion. It is the northernmost part of the asterism known as Orion's Sword, lying 0. The reflection nebula embedded in Sh is popularly known as the Running Man Nebula.

It also includes the open cluster NGC He catalogued it as "H V 30" and described "!! Look up NGC in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. NGC , originally GC , is an isolated nebula with an embedded star cluster, about 1. Retrieved 11 October The true origin of the term was likely derived from the planet-like round shape of these nebulae as observed by astronomers through early telescopes, and although the terminology is inaccurate, it is still used by astronomers today.

The first usage may have occurred during the s with the English astronomer William Herschel who described these nebulae as resembling planets; however, as early as January , the French astronomer Antoine Darquier de Pellepoix described in his observations of the Ring Nebula, "very dim but perfectly outlin. John Louis Emil Dreyer. When he was 14 he became interested in astronomy and regularly visited Hans Schjellerup at the Copenhagen observatory. There he worked as the assistant of Lord Rosse the son and successor of the Lord Rosse who built the Leviathan of Parsonstown telescope.

In he relocated again, this time to Armagh Observatory, where he served as Director until his retirement in In he became a British citizen. In he and his wife Kate moved to Oxford where Dreyer worked on his 15 volume edition of the works of Tych. Sagittarius is one of the constellations of the zodiac.

It is one of the 48 constellations listed by the 2nd-century astronomer Ptolemy and remains one of the 88 modern constellations. Sagittarius is commonly represented as a centaur pulling back a bow. It lies between Scorpius and Ophiuchus to the west and Capricornus and Microscopium to the east. Visualizations The "Teapot" asterism is in Sagittarius. The Milky Way is the "steam" coming from the spout.

As seen from the northern hemisphere, the constellation's brighter stars form an easily recognizable asterism known as "the Teapot". These same sta. An illustration of the constellation Perseus after Perseus from Greek mythology from the star catalogue published by the German astronomer Johannes Hevelius in A star catalogue Commonwealth English or star catalog American English , is an astronomical catalogue that lists stars.

In astronomy, many stars are referred to simply by catalogue numbers. There are a great many different star catalogues which have been produced for different purposes over the years, and this article covers only some of the more frequently quoted ones. Star catalogues were compiled by many different ancient people, including the Babylonians, Greeks, Chinese, Persians, and Arabs. They were sometimes accompanied by a star chart for illustration.

Most modern catalogues are available in electronic format and can be freely downloaded from space agencies data centres. Completeness and accuracy is described by the weakest apparent magnitude V largest number and the accuracy of the positions. Historical catalogues Ancient Near. Size left and distance right of a few well-known galaxies put to scale. The following is a list of notable galaxies. There are about 51 galaxies in the Local Group see list of nearest galaxies for a complete list , on the order of , in our Local Supercluster and an estimated number of about one to two trillion in all of the observable universe.

The discovery of the nature of galaxies as distinct from other nebulae interstellar clouds was made in the s. The first attempts at systematic catalogues of galaxies were made in the s, with the Catalogue of Galaxies and Clusters of Galaxies listing 29, galaxies and galaxy clusters, and with the Morphological Catalogue of Galaxies, a putatively complete list of galaxies with photographic magnitude above 15, listing 30, In the s, the Lyons Groups of Galaxies listed galaxy groups with 3, member galaxies.

Galaxy Zoo is a project aiming at a more comprehensive list: launched in July , it has classified over one million galaxy i. She was the first woman to receive a salary as a scientist. She was also named an honorary member of the Royal Irish Academy The King of Prussia presented her with a Gold Medal for Science on the occasion of her 96th birthday She was the eighth child and fourth daughter of Isaac Herschel, a.

It was discovered on 30 September by Heinrich d'Arrest. The discovery of the galaxy also doubles as Arrest's first deep sky discovery. He described his discovery as "faint, small, round, between 11th and 14th magnitude stars" to the north and south. NGC 1 appears to be quite close to NGC 2, in reality however, the two objects are far apart and unrelated. Messier also known as M is a galaxy listed in the Messier Catalogue that has not been identified unambiguously. Candidate corresponding objects Since the publication of the Messier Catalogue, a number of galaxies have been identified by different historians, professional astronomers, and amateur astronomers as corresponding to M Messier Messier as observed by the Hubble Space Telescope.

In a letter written in to J. This letter was later. An example of a spiral galaxy, the Pinwheel Galaxy also known as Messier or NGC Spiral galaxies form a class of galaxy originally described by Edwin Hubble in his work The Realm of the Nebulae[1] and, as such, form part of the Hubble sequence. Most spiral galaxies consist of a flat, rotating disk containing stars, gas and dust, and a central concentration of stars known as the bulge.

These are often surrounded by a much fainter halo of stars, many of which reside in globular clusters. Spiral galaxies are named by their spiral structures that extend from the center into the galactic disc. The spiral arms are sites of ongoing star formation and are brighter than the surrounding disc because of the young, hot OB stars that inhabit them.

Roughly two-thirds of all spirals are observed to have an additional component in the form of a bar-like structure,[2] extending from the central bulge, at the ends of which the spiral arms begin. The proportion of barred spirals relative to their barless cousi. ESO Science Archive has been providing access to data from astronomical catalogs since Catalogs of historical importance Azophi's Book of Fixed Stars, published in , describes more than a thousand stars in detail and provides the first descriptions of the Andromeda Galaxy[2] and the Large Magellanic Cloud.

Names are made of Greek letters combined with constellation name, for example Alpha Centauri. John Flamsteed's Historia coelestis Britannica star atlas, published in , lists stars using numbers combined with constellation and ordered by right ascension, for example 61 Cygni. Messier Catalog — The Messi. The Pleiades , also known as the Seven Sisters and Messier 45, are an open star cluster containing middle-aged, hot B-type stars located in the constellation of Taurus.

It is among the nearest star clusters to Earth and is the cluster most obvious to the naked eye in the night sky. The cluster is dominated by hot blue and luminous stars that have formed within the last million years. Reflection nebulae around the brightest stars were once thought to be left over material from the formation of the cluster, but are now considered likely to be an unrelated dust cloud in the interstellar medium through which the stars are currently passing. Cygnus is a northern constellation lying on the plane of the Milky Way, deriving its name from the Latinized Greek word for swan.

Cygnus was among the 48 constellations listed by the 2nd century astronomer Ptolemy, and it remains one of the 88 modern constellations. One of the stars of this association, NML Cygni, is one of the largest stars currently known. The constellation is also home to Cygnus X-1, a distant X-ray binary containing a supergiant and unseen massive compan. Star cluster NGC and its surroundings. More than 1, open clusters have been discovered within the Milky Way Galaxy, and many more are thought to exist.

This can result in a migration to the main body of the galaxy and a loss of cluster members through internal close encounters. In contrast, the more massive globular clusters of stars exert a stronger gravitational attraction on their members, and can survive for longer. Open clusters have been found only in spiral and irregular galaxies, in which active star formation is occurring.

The orange supergiant Beta Arae is the brightest star in the constellation, with an apparent magnitude of 2. Seven star systems are known to host planets. The sunlike star Mu Arae hosts four known planets, while Gliese is a binary red dwarf system with four known planets. The Milky Way crosses the northwestern part of Ara. Adilnor Collection, Sweden.

In ancient Greek mythology, Ara was identified as the altar where the gods first made offerings and formed an alliance before defeating the Titans. There are probably a few thousand astronomical objects named after people. These include the names of a few thousand asteroids and hundreds of comets. Also, many topological features on solar system bodies have been named after people, including many hundreds of craters on the Moon, Mars and other planets and satellites. In addition to craters there are also various other topological features such as mountains, valleys, ridges on the Moon and other bodies which are also named after people.

Finally, several stars are named after people according to the IAU , such as Barnard's star Star-registry companies keep lists of stars they claim to have named after people. The IAU does not recognize those claims. There's also a number of Deep-Sky objects named after astronomers and scientists.

The list below shows most of them. Alphabetic list of Deep-Sky objects named after people star clusters, gaseous nebulae, galaxies, galaxy clusters, pulsars, etcetera A most interesting source to detect a veritable cornu. It has been known as the Owl Nebula ever since.