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Access My Transcript. Change Password. Neuropathology Committee. Time Commitment Requirements Number of face-to-face meetings 2 Length of meetings 1. Activities of Committee Act as advisors to CAP regarding issues and practice of Neuropathology, including recommendations for handling and processing specific surgical and autopsy tissue samples.

Serve as interface with appropriate professional organizations eg, current and former committee members are officers and hold leadership positions in the American Association of Neuropathologists. Benefits of Committee Membership Opportunity to publish materials Opportunity to speak at education events Opportunity to promote neuropathology. However, determinants of amyloid formation and toxicity are largely unknown.

As such, an understanding of the mechanism promoting AD risk is important. Although TBI is typically believed to be a static pathological insult from a single event, new clinical unrecognized clinical symptoms can arise many years after the initial injury.

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Plaques found in TBI patients are strikingly similar to those observed in the early stages of AD [ 13 , 14 ]. However, TBI-associated plaques can appear rapidly within hours after injury, whereas plaques in AD develop slowly and are found predominantly in the elderly [ 13 ].

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Plaques have also been observed in pericontusional tissue surgically excised from survivors of TBI. While TBI-associated plaques largely appear in the gray matter, they have also been identified in white matter. The tau protein is associated with microtubules and plays a role in the outgrowth of neuronal processes and the development of neuronal polarity [ 68 ]. Misfolded and aggregated tau causes a gain of toxic function by hindering normal and axonal processes; axonal neurodegeneration due to the loss of tau is caused by a decrease in tau microtubule binding capabilities [ 69 , 70 ].

Tau oligomerization is known as a critical mechanism in the development of NFTs, consisting of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins with pathological function [ 71 ]. AD is also characterized by intracellular hyperphosphorylated tau that constitutes the NFTs and senile plaques and is one of the most common tauopathies [ 72 ]. Furthermore, toxic tau proteins increase within hours after clinical brain injury [ 22 ], and their release and spreading effect may also contribute to the development of tauopathy following TBI [ 73 ].

It was described that the spatial pattern of the tau-immunoreactive pathology observed in chronic traumatic encephalopathy CTE is typical of the tauopathies [ 74 ].

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The tau from both TBI and AD brains is phosphorylated at the same amino acids, resulting in the proteolytic cleavage of six isoforms known as cleaved tau c-tau , including the AT8 epitope [ 75 ]. Hyperphosphorylated Tau has been shown to increase between 1 and 7 days after moderate TBI in triple transgenic AD mice [ 76 ] and at 3 weeks after repetitive mild TBI in the human Tau hTau tauopathy mouse model [ 77 ] Table 2.

Today, CTE is used to define the neurological sequelae and neuropathological changes that occur as a result of repeat concussive or subconcussive blows to the head.

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  4. Besides, the pathology of CTE is also characterized as a tauopathy, a class of neurodegenerative disease caused by the pathological aggregation of tau protein [ 78 ]. Hence, though TDP is synthesized in the cytoplasm and resides in the nucleus of neurons and glia, under pathological conditions TDP is accumulated in the cytoplasm in the form of ubiquitinated and hyperphosphorylated inclusions [ 82 ] Figure 1.

    It has also been recognized as a secondary feature in many other neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington disease, AD and PD [ 83 ]. Axonal damage results in an upregulation of TDP expression, together with a redistribution of TDP from the nuclear compartment to the cytoplasm [ 33 , 84 ]. Contrarily, related studies failed to demonstrate an association between single TBI and TDP proteinopathy, only with repetitive TBI, indicating that just many insults reinforcing acute upregulation are sufficient to cause TDP aggregation.

    To the best of our knowledge, a clear functional role of altered TDP expression levels after TBI has not been demonstrated, though this might disrupt signaling pathways involved in neuronal dysfunction, as some authors have suggested [ 89 ]. Several experimental animal models of TBI have been utilized in the attempt to replicate amyloid and tau pathologies, as well as other proteinopathies associated to AD.

    Some of these have been summarized in Table 2. However, TBI alone does not seem to induce acute plaque formation systematically. Repetitive TBI is known to cause cumulative damage. After mild TBI in mice, during two consecutive days, studies have reported delayed recovery from fine motor coordination deficits as well as evidence of enhanced blood-brain barrier breakdown accompanied by axonal injury [ 21 ].

    However, TBI does not lead to early amyloid plaque formation in transgenic mice, and at later times there is a reduction in amyloid plaques in ipsilateral injury regions [ 90 , 91 ]. To better understand the effects of repeat trauma on the brain, an animal model that can model the disease after repetitive trauma is required. Unfortunately, such an experimental model does not yet exist and will be challenging to generate. In humans, there are three distinct isoforms of the protein: apoE2, apoE3, and apoE4, distinguished by three alleles [ 99 ].

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    ApoE4 individuals were over 10 times more likely to develop AD after severe TBI than those who did not posse the allele [ ], and the presence of an apoE4 allele is linked to poor recovery from extended coma. This finding suggests that genetic factors may strongly influence the risk of CTE after brain injury. Consistent with a role of ApoE protein in amyloid deposition in humans, apoE4 also increases amyloid plaque formation in mice. Some recent reports are controversial clinical and preclinical studies about the link between poor outcome after severe and mild TBI and the APOE4 gene [ 11 , 16 , 30 , , ].

    Principally, the localization and distribution of proteins in TBI patients are fundamentally distinct from the characteristic pattern commonly observed in AD [ 13 ]. In CTE, the tau inclusions are morphologically most similar to those found in AD, with pyramidal neurons maintaining their shape, and tangles consisting of hyperphosphorylated and ubiquitinated tau [ 84 ].

    This phospho-tau staining was also observed in axons and clusters of neuronal cell bodies in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus Figure 2 G and H. Medicine Neurology. Free Preview.

    Hippocampal Sclerosis in Epilepsy: A neuropathology review.

    Updated to reflect the newest information and ideas in this constantly changing field Includes many new questions and answers Show all benefits. Buy eBook. Buy Hardcover. FAQ Policy. About this book The scope of neuropathology continues to expand, as evidenced by increasing numbers of multivolume and specialty texts, which have been published in recent years.

    Show all. From the reviews of the second edition: "This is the second edition of a book originally published by the same author in Vascular Lesions Pages Prayson, Richard. Tumors Pages Prayson, Richard. Trauma Pages Prayson, Richard.